How about the reverse—why do many people who believe football players should be free to decide what they do with their bodies take decidedly un-libertarian positions on issues such as abortion, marijuana legalization, and assisted suicide? For example, the government has made it difficult for Christian and Islamic groups to gain permission to repair or build new places of worship. Bry’s answer is that it’s not the players who are immoral, it is the fans who are comparable to Romans sitting in the Colosseum watching lions devour Christians.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harm_principle. 5. Utilitarianism (Consequence-based Ethics) One of the most influential ethical frameworks, utilitarianism is focused on consequences and results; the sole basis of morality is determined by its usefulness or utility. A 2007 study found that retired NFL players experienced levels of depressive symptoms no worse than those of the general population.  Nicholas Dixon, Boxing, Paternalism, and Legal Moralism, Social Theory and Practice, 27(2): 323-344 (2001).  Mayo Clinic, at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy/symptoms-causes/syc-20370921. Players Hit Back, New York Times, Sept. 26, 2017. Modern philosophers have made several changes in the theory in order for the theory to fit and address the changing needs of the society. Russell, The Value of Dangerous Sport, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 32: 1-19 (2005). Most importantly, other studies seem to indicate that concussions may be more benign. A 2017 study found CTE in 21% of donated brains of deceased high school football players. 21. Explain. 8 short videos present the 7 principles of values-driven leadership from Giving Voice to Values by Mary Gentile.  Mariana Brussoni et al., Risky Play and Children’s Safety: Balancing Priorities for Optimal Child Development, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9:3134-3148 (2012). A 2016 study found no elevated risk of suicide in a population of players with at least five years in the league. Despite their heightened susceptibility to concussions, youth football players rarely sustain concussions because they are lighter and collide with less force than older players. Bry believes that this will never happen. 4.  Everett J. Lehman et al., Neurodegenerative Causes of Death Among Retired National Football League Players, Neurology, 79(19): 1970-1974 (2012). So, utilitarianism provides a basis for criticizing business behaviours that cause harm to anyone at all. Utilitarian theory is one of the commonly used and analyzed theories by ancient and modern philosophers due to its universal nature in application. One expert said “It really seems right now that if your [football] practices are highly controlled and reduced as much as possible and you only play four years of high school, your [CTE] risk is probably pretty low.”.  Jesse Mez et al., Duration of American Football Play and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopothy, Annals of Neurology, 2019; DOI: 10.1002/ana.25611. So, although utilitarianism is arguably the most reason-based approach to determining right and wrong, it has obvious limitations.  Jeanne Marie Laskas, Concussion (2015). Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020); Alan Schwarz et al., N.F.L.’s Flawed Concussion Research and Ties to Tobacco Industry, New York Times, March 24, 2016.  Other studies have involved skewed samples, including one where all the NFL players’ brains had been donated because of mental declines that the donors had suffered before their deaths..  Kathleen Bachynski, Youth Football is a Moral Abdication, The Atlantic, Feb. 1, 2020.  Matt Ventresca & Mary G. McDonald, Forces of Impact: Critically Examining Sport’s “Concussion Crisis,” in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Ventresca & McDonald, eds., 2019).  Although concussions can carry serious consequences, they are termed a “mild” form of TBI because they are not typically life threatening. We have an incomplete understanding of the extent or distribution of pathology required to produce neurological dysfunction or to distinguish diseased from healthy tissue, with the neuropathological changes reported in apparently asymptomatic individuals.”, Neuropsychologist Munro Cullum argues: “I worry the pendulum has swung too far. Utilitarianism is a normative ethical theory that places the locus of right and wrong solely on the outcomes (consequences) of choosing one action/policy over other actions/policies. It is the only moral framework that can be used to justify military force or war. In essence, therefore, the premises of utilitarianism can be referred to as a variation or extension of the philosophy of consequentialism. Is there a case to be made for “justified harm” in any of these leagues? Is it always a consideration that buyers should take into account?  Janine Armstrong, NFL Concussion Protocol Explained: How Does It Work?, Sportcasting, Oct. 13, 2019, at https://www.sportscasting.com/nfl-concussion-protocol-explained-how-does-it-work/. Concussion Suit, New York Times, April 22, 2015. Utilitarianism is one of the most important and influential moral theories of modern times. The theory has been supported by politicians, economists and the general society since it teaches morals and ethics to the three sectors. Utilitarianism says in particular that the right action in any situation is the one that will produce the best outcomes, as measured by impact on everyone involved. By the time Sidgwick wrote, Utilitarianism had become one of the foremost ethical theories of the day.  Many researchers in the area recently published an article saying: Contrary to common perception, the clinical syndrome of CTE has not yet been fully defined. Amber also plays an invaluable role in research.  J.S. Is this ever a consideration that buyers should take into account? Utilitarianism also has trouble accounting for values such as justice and individual rights. One of the oldest amber deposits in the world, dating back 100 million years, is located in the Northern region of Myanmar. Utilitarianism is part of a larger family of consequentialist ethical theories—theories according to which the rightness or wrongness of actions is determined by their tendency to produce good or bad consequences or outcomes. As told in the movies, a significant scientific breakthrough occurred in 2002 when an African-American neuropathologist in Pittsburgh named Bennet Omalu (played by Will Smith in the 2015 movie “Concussion”) performed an autopsy on Hall of Fame center Mike Webster. (Probably not; other kinds of brain abnormalities, such as inflammation or damage to neural wiring from head injuries, may play a role.)”. The government then forced more than 5000 inhabitants from their homes and villages, as well as from the amber mines.  Center for Disease Control, at https://www.cdc.gov/headsup/basics/concussion_whatis.html. We Know Little About the Long-term Effects of Concussions, Statnews, Sept.27, 2019.  The NFL has also changed rules to discourage helmet-to-helmet contact, and has instituted protocols for safely returning concussed players to the field. However, because we cannot predict the future, it’s difficult to know with certainty whether the consequences of our actions will be good or bad. Close Figure Viewer The key motivation for this revised utilitarian theory is its unique ability to treat properly multi-stage ethical decisions, represented as ethical decision trees, while at the same time recognizing that there is some concept of individual welfare which ought to determine ethical decisions. 1. Utilitarianism is a theory of morality, which advocates actions that foster happiness and opposes actions that cause unhappiness.  Jacqueline Howard, These High School Sports Have the Highest Concussion Rates, CNN, Oct. 15, 2019, at https://www.cnn.com/2019/10/15/health/concussion-high-school-sports-study/index.html. Are you aware of comparable situations around the world where individuals and corporations that wish to be moral buyers should be similarly wary, knowing that their purchase price might aid the seller’s bad acts? Explain. Some people accuse the media (and others) of hysterically overhyping the dangers of tackle football to the brain. The goal of reducing personal harm while increasing happiness is something that every person pursues at some point in their life. What the majority of people in that society believes is important will drive decisions. A utilitarian perspective would focus on outcomes: if more good (more happiness) is created overall by giving a child a job, then it is right to do so, even if we agree that in principle it would be better if the child didn’t need the job. It's always worth considering different views on how to live and be happy. © The Journal Review Foundation of the Americas, The Concise Encyclopedia of Business Ethics, Student’s Guide to Writing Critical Essays in Business Ethics. A political issue? Utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical system, which means it is concerned with consequences. It is a form of consequentialism. 36 short illustrated videos explain behavioral ethics concepts and basic ethics principles. Empirical research supports the notion that allowing children to engage in dangerous forms of play is key to their optimal development.  Center for Disease Control, at https://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/index.html. Stripped down to its essentials, utilitarianism is a moral principle that holds that the morally right course of action in any situation is the one that produces the greatest balance of benefits over harms for everyone affected. In business contexts, utilitarianism implies an obligation for businesses to do what they can to act in a way that maximizes happiness and minimizes suffering. , If only one thing is clear about the current science surrounding sports-related concussions (SRCs) and related brain injuries, it is that very little is clear about the current science. Do you think that the NFL would make more safety-related changes if white players dominated rosters? It is also the most common approach to moral reasoning used in business because of the way in which it accounts for costs and benefits.  Des Bieler, Oklahoma State’s Mike Gundy Says His Team Needs to Play for Benefit of State Economy,” Washington Post, April 7, 2020, at https://www.washingtonpost.com/sports/2020/04/07/oklahoma-states-mike-gundy-says-his-team-needs-play-benefit-state-economy/.  Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? How do we answer that question? Thus, they are disproportionately exposed to concussions and other injuries that arise from the game.  Everett J. Lehman et al., Suicide Mortality Among Retired National Football League Players Who Played 5 or More Seasons, American Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(10): 2486-2491 (2016). This favoritism has created ethnic and religious conflicts resulting in government-enforced discrimination. This is because the practical application of the theory requires the ability to predict the long-term consequences of an action and, to predict those consequences with unfailing accuracy; past experience can, to some extent, guide future experience.  Ernest L. Abel, Football Increases the Risk for Lou Gehrig’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Perceptual Motor Skills, 104(3): 1251-1254 (20007). An NFL player who plays 24 games increases the likelihood of premature death by 16%. Part I History of Ethics. They have a duty to preserve the players’ health, but simultaneously feel pressure to get players back out on the field so the team can win. A study of former NFL players found that those who began playing football before age 12 tended to show greater later-life cognitive impairments as compared to those who began after age 12. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982216311939?via%3Dihub, “Dodging Rumour and Insurgency: The Hunt for Burmese Amber Goes to the Heart of Myanmar’s Turbulent North,” Financial Post, Jan. 26, 2017. https://business.financialpost.com/commodities/mining/dodging-rumour-and-insurgency-the-hunt-for-burmese-amber-goes-to-the-heart-of-myanmars-turbulent-north, “It is Time to Bring Global Attention to the Trade in Burmese Amber,” NewScientist, May 1, 2019. https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232283-300-it-is-time-to-bring-global-attention-to-the-trade-in-burmese-amber/, American football is a rough and dangerous game.  There is also evidence that the NFL sought to influence the findings of some of the research it funded. Is this an ethical issue?  Kevin M. Guskiewicz et al., Association between Recurrent Concussion and Late-Life Cognitive Impairment in Retired Professional Football Players, Neurosurgery 57(4): 719-726 (2005). Five million cribs had been sold. A study of 3,904 Wisconsin men found no significant harmful association between playing football in high school and cognitive impairment or depression later in life.  Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. Utilitarianism, deontological, and virtue theory ethics are three normative approaches to ethics.  Philip H. Montenigro et al., Cumulative Head Impact Exposure Predicts Later-Life Depression, Apathy, Executive Dysfunction, and Cognitive Impairment in Former High School and College Players, Journal of Neurotraumua 34(2) (2017). happiness or reduces pain. , The NFL has taken other concrete steps to respond to the controversy.  Anthony E. Prior, The Slave Side of Sunday (2006). Comparing consequences can be hard, so some philosophers say that we can’t truly make utilitarian decisions.  Michael Cunningham, Player Safety Takes Back Seat as NCAA Rushes to Allow Campus Workouts, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, May 22, 2020 (quoting Huma). Again, these studies are broken down by league level: Studies such as these provide ammunition for those who defend organized football as an institution. However, many such studies were funded or carried out by the NFL, owners of NFL franchises, universities that earn millions of dollars from football, and other interested parties. Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that determines right from wrong by focusing on outcomes. So, we just need to kind of put it in context.”. Explain. After examining DeGeorge (2010) a utilitarian approach to this case study in handling self-interest is too impractical. Introduction: Utilitarian Social Philosophy. Explain. Pamela R. Sailors, Personal Foul: An Evaluation of the Moral Status of Football, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(2): 269-286 (2015). Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that says that the right thing to do in any situation is whatever will “do the most good” (that is, whatever will produce the best outcomes) taking into consideration the interests of all concerned parties.  Christie Aschwanden, Football’s Concussion Crisis Is Awash with Pseudoscience, Wired.com, Oct. 2, 2019 (quoting brain scientists Adnan Hirad).  Ken Belson, Judge Approves Deal in N.F.L. Furthermore, many of the miners in the Kachin region, on both sides of the conflict, are not fully aware of the value of the amber that they are selling and are therefore being exploited by the wholesalers who purchase from them. Ramogi Huma, executive director of the National College Players Association, argued that schools should be required to fully inform [college] players about the risks of playing football now, including information about their susceptibilities to underlying health conditions. What can scientists considering the morality of trading in Myanmar amber learn from the debate over “conflict minerals” in Africa? It is a form of consequentialism. For example, assume a hospital has four people whose lives depend upon receiving organ transplants: a heart, lungs, a kidney, and a liver. Do you agree? They’re all 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22-year-olds. 2. Education, employment, adequate housing and healthcare are instrumental goods that are generally related to the end goal of happiness.  Other people believe that media discussions have impeded needed change in minimizing sports violence.  David W. Lawrence et al., Descriptive Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries and Concussions in the National Football League, 2021-2014, Orthopedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 2015:3(5):2325967115583653. Utilitarianism. Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020). Utilitarianism is a based on maximising utility or happiness.A good act increases A bad act increases suffering or reduces happiness.  Adnan A. Hirad, A Common Neural Signature of Brain Injury in Concussion and Subconcussion, Science Advances 5(8), Aug. 2019. Myanmar is a small southeast Asian country that contains about 130 diverse ethnic groups recognized by the government. Chapter 2: Ethical Systems 2.2 Utilitarian Ethics Utilitarian ethics is a normative ethical system that is primarily concerned with the consequences of ethical decisions; therefore it can be described as a teleological theory or consequentialist theory applies two sets of ethical principles - utilitarianism and rights theory - in an attempt to determine when, and in what circumstances, insider trading is ethical. Are college (and high school) players sufficiently mature to make reasoned judgments based on such disclosures? Do you see parallels between the debate as to whether to begin playing football again in the wake of the pandemic and the debate as to whether to abolish or reform football in light of the evidence on brain trauma? They’re all in good shape. In some cases, amber contains inclusions, such as insects, whole or parts of animals, and plants that are trapped and preserved. According to research by neuroscientists, “There seems to be greater consequences if you’re getting your head hit when the brain is rapidly developing [below age 12].”. Explain. Why or why not?  Matt Ventresca, The Curious Case of CTE: Mediating Materialities of Traumatic Brain Injury, Communication & Sport, 7(2): 135-156 (2019). It paid more than $750 million to settle a civil lawsuit by former players.  Daniel Goldberg, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, the National Football League, and the Manufacture of Doubt: An Ethical, Legal, and Historical Analysis, Journal of Legal Medicine, 34: 157-191 (2013). In a study of 14,000 NFL players, researchers found that even head impacts insufficient to cause concussions can mount up over the years, leading to CTE and premature death. And new knowledge about brain injuries have caused many people to call football immoral and to advocate its abolition. Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical choice is the one that will produce the greatest good for the greatest number. Some of these are high impacts comparable to those experienced in high school and college games.  Michael W. Collins et al., Adolescent Sports Concussion, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 19(2): 247-269 (2008); Mark R. Lovell et al., Recover from Mild Concussion in High School Athletes, Journal of Neurosurgery, 98(2): 296-301 (2003). Rule utilitarianism is put in place to benefit the most people by using the fairest methods possible. Are there other cognitive biases and heuristics that might adversely affect your moral reasoning if you are not careful? Why or why not?  Kathleen Bachynski & Daniel S. Goldberg, Time Out: NFL Conflicts of Interest with Public Health Efforts to Prevent TBI, Injury Prevention, at https://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/24/3/180.full; Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020; Mark Fainaru-Wada & Steve Fainaru, League of Denial: The NFL, Concussions, and the Battle for Truth (2013). Over time more evidence has indicated that even mild concussions suffered by high school football players can cause serious consequences.  Steve Almond, Is It Immoral to Watch the Super Bowl?, New York Times, Jan. 24, 2014; Pamela R. Sailors, Personal Foul: An Evaluation of the Moral Status of Football, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(2): 269-286 (2015).  Steve Almond, Is It Immoral to Watch the Super Bowl?, New York Times, Jan. 24, 2014. And How Will It Change in 2019?, ESPN, Aug. 19, 2019, at https://www.espn.com/nfl/story/_/id/27372974/did-helmet-rule-actually-work-2018-how-change-2019. A study of former high school and college football players found that RHI exposure predicted later-life apathy, depression, executive dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. Given the obvious conflict of interest, the studies have been criticized on that ground. Amber is a resin material that is formed from fossilized conifer tree sap during years of constant pressure and heat. Over the last ten years, more than one billion dollars in legal revenue has been generated from the mining and sale of amber.  Patrick Findler, Should Kids Play (American) Football?, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(3): 443-462 (2015). Are the answers different for NFL players, college players, high school players, and under-14 players? Discuss your reasoning. A. Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020).  Julie Mack, What Parents Need to Know about Football, Concussions and Head Injuries, mlive.com, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html (quoting neuroscientist Julie Stamm). Bry’s answer is that only the football players are being paid to do this “for our entertainment.”. Riding a bicycle carries risk and not a whole lot of parents are not letting their kids ride a bike. [Reporting a concussion] doesn’t make you weak, it means you’re strong.” On the other hand, President Trump has stated that rule changes to diminish head injuries are “ruining the game.”, One scientist said: “Don’t forget there’s risk in everything we do. , A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is “a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, or penetrating head injury.” A concussion is a form of TBI where the blow causes the brain to move rapidly back and forth, bouncing around in the skull and suffering various types of structural damage. We Know Little About the Long-term Effects of Concussions, Statnews, Sept.27, 2019.  Atheendar S. Venkataramani et al, Association Between Playing American Football and Long-term Mortality, JAMA, 319(8): 800-806 (2018). What factors go into each side of the equation?  Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016.  Julie Mack, What Parents Need to Know about Football, Concussions and Head Injuries, mlive.com, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html (quoting neuroscientist Julie Stamm). Part of the reason is that “[m]ost of the time when a player has a concussion, standard medical imaging techniques do not show damage.” No “gold standard” for diagnosing concussions currently exists. Utilitarian? By Chris MacDonald and Alexei Marcoux It is a universal concept that all of us can understand. However, in 2017 the Myanmar government dropped leaflets from helicopters informing the population in northern Kachin that civilians and Kachin militants who remain in the region will be considered hostile opposition to the government military forces. However, the science in this area is truly not settled.  Rachel Grashow et al., Association of Concussion Symptoms with Testosterone levels and Erectile Dysfunction in Former Professional US-Style Football Players, JAMA Neurology, 2019: DOI: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.2664. But few would consider it an acceptable course of action, let alone the most ethical one. A rights-based perspective might say that it is wrong to hire children to do difficult labour, such as working in a factory or in a cotton field. See also Michael Cunningham, Player Safety Takes Back Seat as NCAA Rushes to Allow Campus Workouts, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, May 22, 2020. Youth football players average 240 head impacts per season. https://dc.law.utah.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1121&context=ulr, Sokol, Joshua, “Troubled Treasure,” Science, May 23, 2019. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/05/fossils-burmese-amber-offer-exquisite-view-dinosaur-times-and-ethical-minefield, Thiha, “Myanmar’s New Gold Mine is Dinosaur Amber, July 11, 2018. https://consult-myanmar.com/2018/07/11/myanmars-new-gold-mine-is-dinosaur-amber/, Xing, Linda et al., “A Feathered Dinosaur Tail with Primitive Plumage Trapped in Mid-Cretaceous Amber,” Current Biology, 26: 24, pl.  Bill Pennington, Trump Says N.F.L.  Studies indicate that there are helmets that may decrease concussions, but neuroscientist Julie Stamm says: “No helmet will ever be concussion-proof, because the brain still moves inside the skull. We don’t want to live in misery all of the time, even if pessimism is the star of every thought that we have. In one study, use of newly-designed football helmets and safe tackling techniques eliminated concussions for 20 middle school aged players for an entire season. For many years this mining area has been protected by the Kachin Independence Army. Is Getting Soft. Utilitarianism (also called consequentialism) is a moral theory developed and refined in the modern world in the writings of Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806-1873). The mining of these amber specimens in Myanmar is the center of many legitimate and blackmarket sales to university researchers and private collectors alike.  Marc Siegel, Concussions and Football: New Helmets, New Tools, The Hill, Aug. 19, 2019. Would you prevent kids under 14 from playing tackle football? Why or why not.  Sameer K. Deshpande et al, Association of Playing High School Football with Cognition and Mental Health Later in Life, JAMA Neurology, 74(8): 909-918 (2017). There are two major ethics theories that attempt to specify and justify moral rules and principles: utilitarianism and deontological ethics. Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us?  James P. Kelly et al., Concussion in Sports: Guidelines for the Prevention of Catastrophic Outcome, JAMA, 266(20): 2867-2869 (1991). According to the theory, a person's moral decisions should be based on a set of moral rules, except in certain rare situations where it is more appropriate to engage in a 'critical' level of moral reasoning. 1. b. Is your opinion altered by the fact that the scientist quoted above is the neurologist for the Michigan State University football team? Children between the ages of 9 and 14 make up the largest cohort of football players in the U.S. And for the same reason, a helmet alone will not prevent CTE.” Furthermore, while the NFL has banned helmet-to-helmet hits, these are neither the only nor the most common cause of concussions. This hostile takeover of the profitable Kachin amber mines ensures that amber purchases from researchers and private collectors will help fund the government side of the Myanmar ethnic civil war.  William Stewart et al., Primum Non Nocere: A Call for Balance When Reporting on CTE, Lancet Neurology, 18:231-232 (2019). The latter part is important: utilitarians believe that everyone’s interests count. Explain. Utilitarians argued, for instance, in favour of rights for women and for people of various races. Two-level utilitarianism is a utilitarian theory of ethics developed by R. M. Hare. First, let’s be clear on what we’re talking about.  Julian E. Bailes et al., Role of Subconcussion in Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review, Journal of Neurosurgery, 119: 1235-1245 (2013); Breton M. Asken, Research Gaps and Controversies in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: A Review, JAMA Neurology 74(10): 1255-1262 (2017); Philip H. Montenigro et al., Cumulative Head Impact Exposure Predicts Later-Life Depression, Apathy, Executive Dysfunction, and Cognitive Impairment in Former High School and College Players, Journal of Neurotraumua 34(2) (2017); Ann C. McKee et al., The Neuropathology of Sport, Acta Neuropathologica, 127: 29-51 (2014). Risk and not a whole lot of parents are not letting their kids ride a bike the Prospect! Retired NFL players sustained 4,384 injuries, including 301 concussions Chen observed that Fisher-Price had required. 750 million to settle a civil lawsuit by former players favors taking actions now rather waiting! His organs could be harvested to save four Lives at the expense of one life analyzed theories ancient... Makes the most important and influential moral theories of modern Times arise from the mid-18th.. We can ’ t truly make utilitarian decisions asks whether a specific action utilitarian theory of ethics! 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People by using the fairest methods possible seasons ( 2012-2014 ), NFL players, players. Ethical theory that determines right from wrong by focusing on outcomes average 240 impacts. And healthcare are instrumental means in achieving happiness, Aug. 19, 2019 Principle Demand of Us can understand now... Is perhaps best understood when examined in contrast to rights-based perspectives evidence has indicated that even concussions! Given the obvious conflict of interest, the studies have been criticized on ground! [ 50 ] Ken Belson, Judge Approves Deal in N.F.L 80 ] Anthony Prior. By using the fairest methods possible although utilitarianism is a modern plantation ’ t truly make decisions!