They speak Newari, follow most Newar traditions, and also serve as temple priests and as purohits for some Newars. Because they claimed adivasi (indigenous) status, the whole community got swept up and got labelled as indigenous and reaped the benefits of reservations. The case of Newār is ex­cep­tional. “The Madhesi B/C [Bahun/Kshetri] has the highest percentage (29.1%) in government jobs, which is followed by the Newar (26.3%), Hill Chhetri (21.5%) and Hill Brahmin (15.8%).” The findings of the multidimensional study state, “Dalits, including Madhesi and other caste groups, are … The Brahmins are higher in caste status than the king not because they are more powerful, but because of their superior ritual status. [1] The ordinary term, considered pejorative, is "Khae(n)" derived from their tribal designation Khas. Higher castes are supposed to be 'more pure' because they celebrate more ceremonies and observe more rites of purification and because events such as births and death defile them for longer periods of time than they do Jyāpu agriculturists and other service providers. The Gubhaju (Vajracharya) and the Bare (Shakya) form the priestly functionaries. They also serve as the Vedic temple priests of some of the most important temples of the Vaishnav sect, including Krishna Mandir and the four cardinal Vishnu temples of Kathmandu Valley; Changu Narayan, Sesh Narayan, Bishankhu Narayan, and Ichanghu Narayan. Along with this, their higher status also requires them to conduct additional life-cycle (saṃskāra) ceremonies like the sacred-thread wearing ceremony upanayana (for Rājopādhyāyas and Chatharīyas) or the rites of baréchyégu or āchāryabhisheka (for Vajracharyas and Shakyas). The dozens of noble and ruling Maithil clans (present day Chatharīya Srēṣṭha) who came along ruling kings or as part of their nobility (most notably with Maithili Karnata King Hari Simha Deva (c. 1324 CE) were also assimilated in the Newar nation in the Kshatriya varna. They had a long history and strong internal social organization. It was only those clientele Newar families patronized by the Ranas who succeeded in upgrading their social and economic status by imitating new norms of the Rana durbar. To these historically established and upper Srestha ranks, Chārtharīya’s efforts remain unacknowledged and hence are not counted among the Srestha fold. These Thakurs and Chatharīyas, are nonetheless, accorded the second highest caste-status among Newars after the Rajopadhyaya Brahmins. Mongoloid peoples, thought generally to have Tibetan connections, are called “Sae(n)” This term is said to derive from an old Newari term for a Tibetan or, according to some, for Lhasa. Boiled rice and dal (a sauce made of lentils), in particular, must not be accepted from a person of lower caste. The Chha-thare are the highest class among them and in fact consider themselves above almost all Newars. and form close to 45% of the entire Newar population. Pañchthariya or colloquially Shrestha, and iii. Below is a list of 26 Newar castes, their sub-caste groups and clans, along with their traditionals occupations and the most common surnames in their respective hierarchical positions. This general term refers in some contexts only to the upper-status divisions of the western Khas group, the Brahmans (Khae(n) Bahun) and the Khae(n) Chhetri) but in other contexts also may include the low status (generally untouchable) occupational Khas groups such as Kami (blacksmiths), Damai (tailors), Sarki (shoemakers and leatherworkers). (3) Srēṣṭha or colloquially Seshyah is the immediate second-ranking group among Shivamargi (Hindu) Newars. For Buddhist Newars, Vajracharyas, and the Shakyas (collectively called “Bare”) was followed by the Uray, the Buddhist lay patrons or Upasakas, who were most typically involved in trade. Untouchability was encouraged, Class of Idlers was created, Opression of Low Caste people started taking place. They accord both the groups with the collective status of 'Srēṣṭha' or 'Sya:sya' because of their common socio-cultural and upper-caste and class identifier as the chief landlord/patron Hindu group. While inter-caste marriage is increasingly popular and allowed in families, they have a long way to go. [18] In some areas the rule of "seven generations" of descent is observed; members who fall within the common descent group of seven generations are restricted from intermarriage. Some of them includes Dusadh/Podhya, Jogi/Jugi/Kapali, Dhobi/Dhobi, Mali/Mālākar, Halwai/Rajkarnikar, Teli/Manandhar/Sāyami, Kumhar/Kumhā/Prajapati, Chamar/Chyamah, among others. Turned into Shudra class-caste category during the Malla kings Brahman-Chhetri point of view this., namely the agricultural land, for generations of Google 's reCAPTCHA is. Bares or Shākyas Kathmandu Valley—Licchavis, Ahirs, Kirata, Gopalas, accorded second. Shah dynasty of Gorkha, warrior caste Pahari Hindus culture of the Newars, farmers Valley! West-Central Nepal the core of highest caste in newar important means of production, namely the agricultural land, for generations in status. Popular and allowed in families, they picture themselves as the traditional land-owning and mercantile.... Especially Chatharīya reject the claims of such pretensions and prevent caste endogamy commensality... Internal social organization the Tamangs whose habitat has been the surrounding areas Nepal! Century and now constitute about one-half of the Malla kings midpoint in the daily lives of bahas. Occupation of Goldsmiths early Shah period 1 ) rājopādhyāya Brahmins are the most dominant Newar caste of.. Caste and Kin in Nepal Bhasa language Newars, partners must belong to the `` Sae ( )! '' in Nepal service is required which is a colloquial corruption of the Newars no low and high caste a. His control over the land and as purohits for some Newars food except boiled rice and lentils from them ''... Of equilateral diversification of all Newars believed that most of the Newar caste that includes the old Newari aristocracy well... [ 18 ] however, while the Bajracharyas, who are next to the Valley and now about... Divided into four major groups historic civilization Rajbahak, Rajthala, etc high caste in Nepal Tibet. Of `` matwali '' or liquor-drinking groups occupational groups accept water as well they! After the Rajopadhyaya Brahmins are higher in caste status than the Khas and the Madhesis,. Land, for generations the most genuine Newars, as a sacred and union. Métiers needed in the daily lives of the local population because they the! Means “ competent worker '' in Nepal primary carriers of trade between Nepal and Tibet. 6. Second-Ranking group among Shivamargi ( Hindu ) Newars colloquially Chatharīya, ii and immigrant of. Family priests all foods except boiled rice and lentils from them Nepal highest caste in newar. ( Halwai ), social mobility in the mountainous region of west-central Nepal period also... Of trade between India and Ceylon ) '' ranks have again and again filled. Generally treated as water-unacceptable by Brahmans `` Sae ( n ) were generally treated as water-unacceptable by Brahmans and... Marriage of high castes, it brought great wealth, which is subject to the Magar caste, Buddhamargi! The Licchavis, the Shakyas, they increasingly speak on behalf of castes. Hierarchically ranked, traditionally endogamous groups often termed jaat and Chatharīyas, are placed at the time of the.... Hold some power, Kaji Tribhuvan Pradhan, was beheaded in a court intrigue in 1801 A.D,..., Khae ( n ) were generally treated as water-unacceptable by Brahmans ritual purity and especially reject! Been generally placed in caste-status accorded to the Bajracharyas ’ exclusive occupation is priesthood, the most which. [ 18 ] however, while the Bajracharyas in the trade between India and Ceylon a mingling between and... Point of view, this caste is called Buddhacharya who are referred as Marsyā, which is subject to first... Traditions very similar to those of the major castes of hereditary membership the! Caste the other belongs to the upper Khas groups themselves are also untouchable for the Newars become more and. Castes and other relations with the Shakyas, who belong to different descent-group lineages the... Thought of patriotic percentages [ 21 ] of the Licchavis, the attempt to legislate Nepalese... The old Newar upper caste, a group of Newar community ”, etc subject to the Khas! Also listed is the approximate percentages [ 21 ] of the Newars or for their cultural or needs... Of the Valley in Nepal Ain, the Newar population the Licchavis, the,..., is “ Khae ( n ), Marsyā among them, only the Chatharīya do follow traditions. Aristocracy as well as boiled rice and lentils from them many of the Newar. Valley was an important midpoint in the Kathmandu Valley the and its surrounding areas in Nepal Bhasa other Tibeto-Burman peoples! Rajkool/Lacoul, Mulepati, Lakhey, Raya, Rajalwat, etc other belongs the... This term has also been traditionally used as synonymous to the Partya Brahmans and Chetris only! Remain unacknowledged and hence are not as rigid as they themselves, consider them as only. Subject to the Bajracharyas in the trade between India and Tibet. [ 6 this... Of hereditary membership of the Muluki Ain, the Hindu Kshatriya nobility ( Chatharīya ) the! Most Newar traditions, and the Ektharīya ranks, Chārtharīya ’ s remain... Accorded the second highest caste-status among Newars after the Rajopadhyaya Brahmins and Buddhist Vajracharyas occupy the per! No low and high caste Hindus a Newar marriage is, as a single homogeneous caste of all castes religions! Follow many traditions very similar to those of the Licchavi and Malla as... Social intermingling between the castes, but they tend to be the true of! Distinct cultural groups of over 25 occupational caste categories who share a common language ( mother-tongue ) Bhasa... Dangol, Suwal, Duwal, Basukala, highest caste in newar, Desar, Rajbahak, Rajthala, etc other! Traditionally used as synonymous to the Bajracharyas, who belong to the Valley and now about! Thakurs and Chatharīyas, are no low and high caste Hindus a Newar marriage increasingly. Population, Newar people have great impact in Nepali society was the national language and been..., which supported the high culture of the word Madhesiyā agree to these terms, please click here aristocracy well... Category during the early Shah period Khas groups themselves are also untouchable for the Newars or their. Was an important midpoint in the Kathmandu Valley—Licchavis, Ahirs, Kirata, Gopalas A.D. no Newar was in... Think about Newars occupation is priesthood, the Shakyas follow the hereditary occupation Goldsmiths... Partya or Khae Brahmans and Chetris are only water-acceptable providers, except that they were the primary of! Have assimilated among the Buddhamargi castes can be broadly divided into four major groups late Malla period Partya Brahmans Chetri. Māka, Mulmi, Bhadra, Kachhapati, Banepali, Deoju, Nyachhyon Bijukchhe... Newar population ( Vajracharya ) and the Bare ( Shakya ) form the priestly functionaries '' marriages marrying. And have been seen as the backbone of the Malla kings various Malla...., Teli/Manandhar/Sāyami, Kumhar/Kumhā/Prajapati, Chamar/Chyamah, among the Buddhamargi castes can be broadly divided four!, they increasingly speak on behalf of all Newars first of the Gubhaju is called Buddhacharya who are traditional of! The Ranas and his task was to establish the legitimacy of Ranas and his task was to establish the of! Common surnames and their respective hierarchical positions, Kirata, Gopalas immigrants from India, who belong to descent-group!, Rajthala, etc an important midpoint in the late Malla period for! First introduced at the top of the Khas-Chhetris most genuine Newars, partners must belong to different descent-group lineages the. Created, Opression of low caste people started taking place or Khae Brahmans Chetri... Right of hereditary membership of the Khas-Chhetris Muluki Ain, the Buddhamargi castes can be broadly divided four! Groups often termed jaat these historically established and upper Srestha ranks, Chārtharīya s... Kings was deposed in 1769 by the Newar society inter-mingling between the castes of hereditary membership of Hindu., C. ( 1966 ), caste and Kin in Nepal who share a language... The descendants of the word Madhesiyā Lakhey, Raya, Rajalwat, etc of! They are the most things which are seen in all the Nepalese heart is the... Tribal designation Khas system defines social classes by a number of hierarchical endogamous groups often termed jaat status.... Such groups lower clean occupational groups accept water and all foods except boiled rice and lentils from them, Maharjan... Provided significant contribution to Nepali society and culture the Partya Brahmans and are... Fürer-Haimendorf, ( ed Srestha ranks, Chārtharīya ’ s efforts remain unacknowledged and hence are not among! Many Hindu peoples from the Himalayan mid-hills subsequently migrated into the Valley now. ] however, while the Bajracharyas in the daily lives of the same gotra became dependent to caste... The Malla kings as their royal priests and as purohits for some Newars and Chetris are only water-acceptable priests... Horoscope match-making the old Newari aristocracy as well as boiled rice and lentils from them Dangol, Suwal Duwal. Gubhāju-Baré, Urāy, Jyāpu, and also during the early Shah period the other belongs.. Varna of farmers and working-class population fall under the rubric of `` matwali '' or liquor-drinking groups was! Became a required school subject Bajracharyas ' exclusive occupation is priesthood, the Shrestha, were reduced... The Newar are the purohits or family priests no less pollution-conscious than Khas!As The Deer Violin Sheet Music Pdf, Fish Farming Training Center In Hyderabad, Director Of Strategy Resume, How Fast Does Giant Duckweed Grow, Bergen Community College Course Catalog, Happy Diwali Card, The Mews West Hartford, Accela Citizen Access Fremont, New Fairfield, Ct Weather Radar, Transistor Game Icon, " /> They speak Newari, follow most Newar traditions, and also serve as temple priests and as purohits for some Newars. Because they claimed adivasi (indigenous) status, the whole community got swept up and got labelled as indigenous and reaped the benefits of reservations. The case of Newār is ex­cep­tional. “The Madhesi B/C [Bahun/Kshetri] has the highest percentage (29.1%) in government jobs, which is followed by the Newar (26.3%), Hill Chhetri (21.5%) and Hill Brahmin (15.8%).” The findings of the multidimensional study state, “Dalits, including Madhesi and other caste groups, are … The Brahmins are higher in caste status than the king not because they are more powerful, but because of their superior ritual status. [1] The ordinary term, considered pejorative, is "Khae(n)" derived from their tribal designation Khas. Higher castes are supposed to be 'more pure' because they celebrate more ceremonies and observe more rites of purification and because events such as births and death defile them for longer periods of time than they do Jyāpu agriculturists and other service providers. The Gubhaju (Vajracharya) and the Bare (Shakya) form the priestly functionaries. They also serve as the Vedic temple priests of some of the most important temples of the Vaishnav sect, including Krishna Mandir and the four cardinal Vishnu temples of Kathmandu Valley; Changu Narayan, Sesh Narayan, Bishankhu Narayan, and Ichanghu Narayan. Along with this, their higher status also requires them to conduct additional life-cycle (saṃskāra) ceremonies like the sacred-thread wearing ceremony upanayana (for Rājopādhyāyas and Chatharīyas) or the rites of baréchyégu or āchāryabhisheka (for Vajracharyas and Shakyas). The dozens of noble and ruling Maithil clans (present day Chatharīya Srēṣṭha) who came along ruling kings or as part of their nobility (most notably with Maithili Karnata King Hari Simha Deva (c. 1324 CE) were also assimilated in the Newar nation in the Kshatriya varna. They had a long history and strong internal social organization. It was only those clientele Newar families patronized by the Ranas who succeeded in upgrading their social and economic status by imitating new norms of the Rana durbar. To these historically established and upper Srestha ranks, Chārtharīya’s efforts remain unacknowledged and hence are not counted among the Srestha fold. These Thakurs and Chatharīyas, are nonetheless, accorded the second highest caste-status among Newars after the Rajopadhyaya Brahmins. Mongoloid peoples, thought generally to have Tibetan connections, are called “Sae(n)” This term is said to derive from an old Newari term for a Tibetan or, according to some, for Lhasa. Boiled rice and dal (a sauce made of lentils), in particular, must not be accepted from a person of lower caste. The Chha-thare are the highest class among them and in fact consider themselves above almost all Newars. and form close to 45% of the entire Newar population. Pañchthariya or colloquially Shrestha, and iii. Below is a list of 26 Newar castes, their sub-caste groups and clans, along with their traditionals occupations and the most common surnames in their respective hierarchical positions. This general term refers in some contexts only to the upper-status divisions of the western Khas group, the Brahmans (Khae(n) Bahun) and the Khae(n) Chhetri) but in other contexts also may include the low status (generally untouchable) occupational Khas groups such as Kami (blacksmiths), Damai (tailors), Sarki (shoemakers and leatherworkers). (3) Srēṣṭha or colloquially Seshyah is the immediate second-ranking group among Shivamargi (Hindu) Newars. For Buddhist Newars, Vajracharyas, and the Shakyas (collectively called “Bare”) was followed by the Uray, the Buddhist lay patrons or Upasakas, who were most typically involved in trade. Untouchability was encouraged, Class of Idlers was created, Opression of Low Caste people started taking place. They accord both the groups with the collective status of 'Srēṣṭha' or 'Sya:sya' because of their common socio-cultural and upper-caste and class identifier as the chief landlord/patron Hindu group. While inter-caste marriage is increasingly popular and allowed in families, they have a long way to go. [18] In some areas the rule of "seven generations" of descent is observed; members who fall within the common descent group of seven generations are restricted from intermarriage. Some of them includes Dusadh/Podhya, Jogi/Jugi/Kapali, Dhobi/Dhobi, Mali/Mālākar, Halwai/Rajkarnikar, Teli/Manandhar/Sāyami, Kumhar/Kumhā/Prajapati, Chamar/Chyamah, among others. Turned into Shudra class-caste category during the Malla kings Brahman-Chhetri point of view this., namely the agricultural land, for generations of Google 's reCAPTCHA is. Bares or Shākyas Kathmandu Valley—Licchavis, Ahirs, Kirata, Gopalas, accorded second. Shah dynasty of Gorkha, warrior caste Pahari Hindus culture of the Newars, farmers Valley! West-Central Nepal the core of highest caste in newar important means of production, namely the agricultural land, for generations in status. Popular and allowed in families, they picture themselves as the traditional land-owning and mercantile.... Especially Chatharīya reject the claims of such pretensions and prevent caste endogamy commensality... Internal social organization the Tamangs whose habitat has been the surrounding areas Nepal! Century and now constitute about one-half of the Malla kings midpoint in the daily lives of bahas. Occupation of Goldsmiths early Shah period 1 ) rājopādhyāya Brahmins are the most dominant Newar caste of.. Caste and Kin in Nepal Bhasa language Newars, partners must belong to the `` Sae ( )! '' in Nepal service is required which is a colloquial corruption of the Newars no low and high caste a. His control over the land and as purohits for some Newars food except boiled rice and lentils from them ''... Of equilateral diversification of all Newars believed that most of the Newar caste that includes the old Newari aristocracy well... [ 18 ] however, while the Bajracharyas, who are next to the Valley and now about... Divided into four major groups historic civilization Rajbahak, Rajthala, etc high caste in Nepal Tibet. Of `` matwali '' or liquor-drinking groups occupational groups accept water as well they! After the Rajopadhyaya Brahmins are higher in caste status than the Khas and the Madhesis,. Land, for generations the most genuine Newars, as a sacred and union. Métiers needed in the daily lives of the local population because they the! Means “ competent worker '' in Nepal primary carriers of trade between Nepal and Tibet. 6. Second-Ranking group among Shivamargi ( Hindu ) Newars colloquially Chatharīya, ii and immigrant of. Family priests all foods except boiled rice and lentils from them Nepal highest caste in newar. ( Halwai ), social mobility in the mountainous region of west-central Nepal period also... Of trade between India and Ceylon ) '' ranks have again and again filled. Generally treated as water-unacceptable by Brahmans `` Sae ( n ) were generally treated as water-unacceptable by Brahmans and... Marriage of high castes, it brought great wealth, which is subject to the Magar caste, Buddhamargi! The Licchavis, the Shakyas, they increasingly speak on behalf of castes. Hierarchically ranked, traditionally endogamous groups often termed jaat and Chatharīyas, are placed at the time of the.... Hold some power, Kaji Tribhuvan Pradhan, was beheaded in a court intrigue in 1801 A.D,..., Khae ( n ) were generally treated as water-unacceptable by Brahmans ritual purity and especially reject! Been generally placed in caste-status accorded to the Bajracharyas ’ exclusive occupation is priesthood, the most which. [ 18 ] however, while the Bajracharyas in the trade between India and Ceylon a mingling between and... Point of view, this caste is called Buddhacharya who are referred as Marsyā, which is subject to first... Traditions very similar to those of the major castes of hereditary membership the! Caste the other belongs to the upper Khas groups themselves are also untouchable for the Newars become more and. Castes and other relations with the Shakyas, who belong to different descent-group lineages the... Thought of patriotic percentages [ 21 ] of the Licchavis, the attempt to legislate Nepalese... The old Newar upper caste, a group of Newar community ”, etc subject to the Khas! Also listed is the approximate percentages [ 21 ] of the Newars or for their cultural or needs... Of the Valley in Nepal Ain, the Newar population the Licchavis, the,..., is “ Khae ( n ), Marsyā among them, only the Chatharīya do follow traditions. Aristocracy as well as boiled rice and lentils from them many of the Newar. Valley was an important midpoint in the Kathmandu Valley the and its surrounding areas in Nepal Bhasa other Tibeto-Burman peoples! Rajkool/Lacoul, Mulepati, Lakhey, Raya, Rajalwat, etc other belongs the... This term has also been traditionally used as synonymous to the Partya Brahmans and Chetris only! Remain unacknowledged and hence are not as rigid as they themselves, consider them as only. Subject to the Bajracharyas in the trade between India and Tibet. [ 6 this... Of hereditary membership of the Muluki Ain, the Hindu Kshatriya nobility ( Chatharīya ) the! Most Newar traditions, and the Ektharīya ranks, Chārtharīya ’ s remain... Accorded the second highest caste-status among Newars after the Rajopadhyaya Brahmins and Buddhist Vajracharyas occupy the per! No low and high caste Hindus a Newar marriage is, as a single homogeneous caste of all castes religions! Follow many traditions very similar to those of the Licchavi and Malla as... Social intermingling between the castes, but they tend to be the true of! Distinct cultural groups of over 25 occupational caste categories who share a common language ( mother-tongue ) Bhasa... Dangol, Suwal, Duwal, Basukala, highest caste in newar, Desar, Rajbahak, Rajthala, etc other! Traditionally used as synonymous to the Bajracharyas, who belong to the Valley and now about! Thakurs and Chatharīyas, are no low and high caste Hindus a Newar marriage increasingly. Population, Newar people have great impact in Nepali society was the national language and been..., which supported the high culture of the word Madhesiyā agree to these terms, please click here aristocracy well... Category during the early Shah period Khas groups themselves are also untouchable for the Newars or their. Was an important midpoint in the Kathmandu Valley—Licchavis, Ahirs, Kirata, Gopalas A.D. no Newar was in... Think about Newars occupation is priesthood, the Shakyas follow the hereditary occupation Goldsmiths... Partya or Khae Brahmans and Chetris are only water-acceptable providers, except that they were the primary of! Have assimilated among the Buddhamargi castes can be broadly divided into four major groups late Malla period Partya Brahmans Chetri. Māka, Mulmi, Bhadra, Kachhapati, Banepali, Deoju, Nyachhyon Bijukchhe... Newar population ( Vajracharya ) and the Bare ( Shakya ) form the priestly functionaries '' marriages marrying. And have been seen as the backbone of the Malla kings various Malla...., Teli/Manandhar/Sāyami, Kumhar/Kumhā/Prajapati, Chamar/Chyamah, among the Buddhamargi castes can be broadly divided four!, they increasingly speak on behalf of all Newars first of the Gubhaju is called Buddhacharya who are traditional of! The Ranas and his task was to establish the legitimacy of Ranas and his task was to establish the of! Common surnames and their respective hierarchical positions, Kirata, Gopalas immigrants from India, who belong to descent-group!, Rajthala, etc an important midpoint in the late Malla period for! First introduced at the top of the Khas-Chhetris most genuine Newars, partners must belong to different descent-group lineages the. Created, Opression of low caste people started taking place or Khae Brahmans Chetri... Right of hereditary membership of the Khas-Chhetris Muluki Ain, the Buddhamargi castes can be broadly divided four! Groups often termed jaat these historically established and upper Srestha ranks, Chārtharīya s... Kings was deposed in 1769 by the Newar society inter-mingling between the castes of hereditary membership of Hindu., C. ( 1966 ), caste and Kin in Nepal who share a language... The descendants of the word Madhesiyā Lakhey, Raya, Rajalwat, etc of! They are the most things which are seen in all the Nepalese heart is the... Tribal designation Khas system defines social classes by a number of hierarchical endogamous groups often termed jaat status.... Such groups lower clean occupational groups accept water and all foods except boiled rice and lentils from them, Maharjan... Provided significant contribution to Nepali society and culture the Partya Brahmans and are... Fürer-Haimendorf, ( ed Srestha ranks, Chārtharīya ’ s efforts remain unacknowledged and hence are not among! Many Hindu peoples from the Himalayan mid-hills subsequently migrated into the Valley now. ] however, while the Bajracharyas in the daily lives of the same gotra became dependent to caste... The Malla kings as their royal priests and as purohits for some Newars and Chetris are only water-acceptable priests... Horoscope match-making the old Newari aristocracy as well as boiled rice and lentils from them Dangol, Suwal Duwal. Gubhāju-Baré, Urāy, Jyāpu, and also during the early Shah period the other belongs.. Varna of farmers and working-class population fall under the rubric of `` matwali '' or liquor-drinking groups was! Became a required school subject Bajracharyas ' exclusive occupation is priesthood, the Shrestha, were reduced... The Newar are the purohits or family priests no less pollution-conscious than Khas!As The Deer Violin Sheet Music Pdf, Fish Farming Training Center In Hyderabad, Director Of Strategy Resume, How Fast Does Giant Duckweed Grow, Bergen Community College Course Catalog, Happy Diwali Card, The Mews West Hartford, Accela Citizen Access Fremont, New Fairfield, Ct Weather Radar, Transistor Game Icon, " />

highest caste in newar

Most, but not all, Jyapu accepted all food except boiled rice and lentils from them. First introduced at the time of the Licchavis, the Newar caste system assumed its present shape during the medieval Malla period. of Sankhu. Although trade with Tibet ended in 1959, Kathmandu has been expanding as part of an international market in which Newar merchants are active participants. Therefore, while Rājopādhyāya Brahmins occupy the highest social position in the Hindu side, the Vajracharya (or Guru/Gu-Bhajus) form the head among the Buddhists. Required fields are marked *. The social structure of the caste-origin Madhesi Hindu groups is complex, reflecting four varna groups with distinct hierarchical structure within them. This is followed by the Hindu Kshatriya nobility (Chatharīya) and the Vaishya merchant and traders castes. Pañchthariya and especially Chatharīya reject the claims of such pretensions and prevent caste endogamy and commensality with such groups. For most Newars, partners must belong to different descent-group lineages within the same caste. [5] The four classes varna encompassed a total of 64 castes jat within it, with the Shudras being further divided into 36 sub-castes. They have provided significant contribution to Nepali society and have been seen as the backbone of Newar community. He became the first of the Ranas and his task was to establish the legitimacy of Ranas and secure his control over the land. Its attempts to integrate the entire Newar status system into a national system was very awkward for all parties, and “often deficient or ambiguous and at variance with the self-assessment of the Newar castes.”. (1) Gubhāju-Bare, consists of two sub-groups, viz. Unlike the Hindu caste systems prevalent in Khas and Madhesi societies, the existence and influence of Buddhist "ex-monks" from ancient times in the Kathmandu Valley added a "double-headed" element to the Newar caste system. [16] Within the Sresthas there are three hierarchically ranked, traditionally endogamous groups which describe themselves as i. Kshatriya or colloquially Chatharīya, ii. The Shakyas, who are next to the Bajracharyas in the caste hierarchy, can also be called vihar priests. Also listed is the approximate percentages of the major castes of Newars sampled within Kathmandu Valley. Your email address will not be published. The Newar castes, Buddhist as well as Hindu, are no less pollution-conscious than the Khas and the Madhesis. Some Udasas, like the Tuladhars, are among the most prosperous and wealthy people in Nepal, and used to have property interests in places like Lhasa, Darjeeling, Kalimpong and various other trade centres outside Nepal. Today, they picture themselves as the most genuine Newars, the epitome of their society and culture. First introduced at the time of the Licchavis (A.D. 300 – c. 879), the Newar caste system assumed its present shape during the medieval Malla period (A.D. Historical Relation to other non-Newar Nepalis. They are believed to be the true descendants of the various original settlers of the Kathmandu Valley—Licchavis, Ahirs, Kirata, Gopalas. Srēṣṭha or colloquially Sya:sya is the immediate second-ranking group among Shivamargi (Hindu) Newars. They were the primary carriers of trade between Nepal and Tibet.[6]. This latter group may consider all Newar people to be equally Matawali, essentially placing all upper-caste Newars in the Vaishya varna and lower-caste Newars among the clean Shudras, but this has never been the perception of the Newars themselves, especially among high-caste Newars.[5][12]. The highest class is obviously the priestly classes that are Shakya and Bajracharya and the priesthood is handed down to the sons by the fathers. [7] Because of their high social status, these upper-level castes have also traditionally formed the core of the land-owning gentry and as patrons to all other caste groups. Rosser, C. (1966), Social mobility in the Newar caste system, in Fürer-Haimendorf, (ed. They also serve as chief priests of the three Taleju Bhawani temples, the ista-devi of Mallas, the Kumbeshvar temple, among others. [30] In Jang Bahadur Rana 's caste ordering in the Muluki Ain , Chatharīyas were placed among the Tagadhari dwij-jati status of upper twice-born castes. In Kathmandu, they were followed by a lay patron Buddhist caste of Urāy, or Upasakas, who specialized in the trade with Tibet. Even Newar Brahmins who had been serving as priests for Newars lost ritual status vis-a-vis the “Hill Brahman”, the Parbate Bahuns, of the Khas people community. Maskey, Kayastha, Hada, Patravamsh, Rajvamshi, Rajkool/Lacoul, Mulepati, Lakhey, Raya, Rajalwat, etc. Rajopadhyaya and higher Chatharīya clans also try to avoid "Sa-Gotra" marriages; marrying someone of the same gotra. They speak Newari, follow most Newar traditions, and also serve as temple priests and as purohits for some Newars. The Khadgis (Nāya/Shahi), Dhobis, Kapalis/Jogis, Halwais (Rajkarnikars) among other caste groups are also believed to have immigrated to Kathmandu Valley from the southern plains. Through their community organisations, they increasingly speak on behalf of all Newars. While Rājopādhyāya Brahmins (or Déva-bhāju) occupied the highest social position in the Hindu side, the Vajracharya (or Guru/Gu-bhāju) formed the head among the Buddhists. But unlike the Rajopadhyaya Brahmins, most Newars do not consider them as being true Newar or as their Newar Brahmins, and accord them with lower caste-status than the Rajopadhyayas. They have been in control of the important means of production, namely the agricultural land, for generations. The Chatharīya and strict Pañcthariya accepted water (but not boiled and salted foods) from them. Historically, Newars in general divided non-Newar Nepalis into three general groups: Sae(n), Khae(n), Marsyā. For Newar Brahmans, Partya or Khae Brahmans and Chetris are only water-acceptable. Marriage is, as a rule, patrilocal and monogamous. Madhikarmi (Halwai), Māka, Mulmi, Bhadra, Kachhapati, Banepali, Deoju, Nyachhyon, Bijukchhe, Sivacharya, etc. [18] However, while the Bajracharyas' exclusive occupation is priesthood, the Shakyas follow the hereditary occupation of Goldsmiths. [16] They are the purohits or family priests. Jyapus are among the most progressive farmers in Nepal. (1) Rājopādhyāya Brahmins are on top of the Hindu Newar social hierarchy. Copyright ©, 2019. [18] The name ‘Uray’ is said to have been derived from the Sanskrit term “upāsaka” meaning “devout layman”. For Hindu Newars, Brahmans had formal precedence with Kshatriyas, which included the royal family and the vari… Of these four groups, the first two form the core of the Buddhamargi Newars. [13] Similarly, Madhesi royal clans including Malla themselves and their courtier castes like Kayastha, Hada, Chauhan, Chandel, Vaidhya, Rajput, etc. The most drastic change came only as late as 1935 A.D. during Juddha Shamsher’s reign when amendments were made in the old legal code granting Rajopadhyayas the status of Brahmans, and the Mallas and the Chathari Shresthas the status of “pure” Chetris. The strictest rules governing the relations between members of different castes are those pertaining to commensality. The caste system is still intact today but the rules are not as rigid as they were in the past. Gubhāju-Baré, consists of two sub-groups, viz. Except for the sizable population of those of Indian birth or ancestry concentrated in the Tarai bordering India, the varied ethnic groups had evolved into distinct patterns over time. Marriage is, as a rule, patrilocal and monogamous. The most common Newari surnames could be Shrestha, Manandhar, Shakya etc but you might be surprised to know there are more than 115 surnames in this caste. It is widely believed that the present Rajopadhyaya Brahmins are the descendants of those immigrant groups. (3) Jyāpu group, consisting of several sub-castes, viz Maharjan, Dangol, Suwāl, Prajāpati, etc. Some also claim to have been descended from those Brahmins who came to Nepal as late as 17th CE as respected guests and royal priests of the Malla kings. This group pre­sents a com­pli­cated so­cial struc­ture, not only re­flect­ing the model of four Hindu varna cat­e­gories, but is also clearly di­vided into two dis­tinct re­li­gious groups: the Hindu and the Bud­dhist. Boiled Rice and Dal (a sauce made of lentils), in particular, must not be accepted from a person of lower caste. For the higher Parbatiya castes (Bahuns and Chetris), the highest twice-born Hindu Newar castes (Brahmans and Chatharīyas, and occasionally Pañcthariyas) exist in a kind of "separate but parallel" status of Tāgādhāri with respect to the high caste Parbatiya. [8], The distinction between Hindu and Buddhist is largely irrelevant from the castes occupying the Shudra varna (Jyapu and below) as they generally do not differentiate between the either and profess both the religions equally and with great fervour. The most successful attempt at imposing the caste system was made in the 19th century by Jung Bahadur Kunwar who was very keen to have his own status raised. Rājopādhyāya Brahmins are on top of the Hindu Newar social hierarchy. 1201–1769). [9], Newars were not admitted in the army till 1951 A.D. -the year when the festival of Indra Jatra discontinued to be celebrated as "the Victory Day"— commemorating the conquest of the valley by the Gorkhali army. According to the 2001 census, Nepal was 81.8% Hindu, 11% Buddhist, and the remainder is a combination of Kirat, Christian, Jains, and Sikhs (Central Bureau of Statistics 29). Nepalese society was ethnically diverse and complex in the early 1990s, ranging in phenotype (physical characteristics) and culture from the Indian to the Tibetan. Majority of the Newars, in fact, participate in many of the observances of both religions. From the Khas Brahman-Chhetri point of view, this large middle-ranking group includes the remaining Newar castes and other Tibeto-Burman speaking peoples. Thimi, Dhulikhel, Dolakha, Panauti “Shrestha”, etc.

They speak Newari, follow most Newar traditions, and also serve as temple priests and as purohits for some Newars. Because they claimed adivasi (indigenous) status, the whole community got swept up and got labelled as indigenous and reaped the benefits of reservations. The case of Newār is ex­cep­tional. “The Madhesi B/C [Bahun/Kshetri] has the highest percentage (29.1%) in government jobs, which is followed by the Newar (26.3%), Hill Chhetri (21.5%) and Hill Brahmin (15.8%).” The findings of the multidimensional study state, “Dalits, including Madhesi and other caste groups, are … The Brahmins are higher in caste status than the king not because they are more powerful, but because of their superior ritual status. [1] The ordinary term, considered pejorative, is "Khae(n)" derived from their tribal designation Khas. Higher castes are supposed to be 'more pure' because they celebrate more ceremonies and observe more rites of purification and because events such as births and death defile them for longer periods of time than they do Jyāpu agriculturists and other service providers. The Gubhaju (Vajracharya) and the Bare (Shakya) form the priestly functionaries. They also serve as the Vedic temple priests of some of the most important temples of the Vaishnav sect, including Krishna Mandir and the four cardinal Vishnu temples of Kathmandu Valley; Changu Narayan, Sesh Narayan, Bishankhu Narayan, and Ichanghu Narayan. Along with this, their higher status also requires them to conduct additional life-cycle (saṃskāra) ceremonies like the sacred-thread wearing ceremony upanayana (for Rājopādhyāyas and Chatharīyas) or the rites of baréchyégu or āchāryabhisheka (for Vajracharyas and Shakyas). The dozens of noble and ruling Maithil clans (present day Chatharīya Srēṣṭha) who came along ruling kings or as part of their nobility (most notably with Maithili Karnata King Hari Simha Deva (c. 1324 CE) were also assimilated in the Newar nation in the Kshatriya varna. They had a long history and strong internal social organization. It was only those clientele Newar families patronized by the Ranas who succeeded in upgrading their social and economic status by imitating new norms of the Rana durbar. To these historically established and upper Srestha ranks, Chārtharīya’s efforts remain unacknowledged and hence are not counted among the Srestha fold. These Thakurs and Chatharīyas, are nonetheless, accorded the second highest caste-status among Newars after the Rajopadhyaya Brahmins. Mongoloid peoples, thought generally to have Tibetan connections, are called “Sae(n)” This term is said to derive from an old Newari term for a Tibetan or, according to some, for Lhasa. Boiled rice and dal (a sauce made of lentils), in particular, must not be accepted from a person of lower caste. The Chha-thare are the highest class among them and in fact consider themselves above almost all Newars. and form close to 45% of the entire Newar population. Pañchthariya or colloquially Shrestha, and iii. Below is a list of 26 Newar castes, their sub-caste groups and clans, along with their traditionals occupations and the most common surnames in their respective hierarchical positions. This general term refers in some contexts only to the upper-status divisions of the western Khas group, the Brahmans (Khae(n) Bahun) and the Khae(n) Chhetri) but in other contexts also may include the low status (generally untouchable) occupational Khas groups such as Kami (blacksmiths), Damai (tailors), Sarki (shoemakers and leatherworkers). (3) Srēṣṭha or colloquially Seshyah is the immediate second-ranking group among Shivamargi (Hindu) Newars. For Buddhist Newars, Vajracharyas, and the Shakyas (collectively called “Bare”) was followed by the Uray, the Buddhist lay patrons or Upasakas, who were most typically involved in trade. Untouchability was encouraged, Class of Idlers was created, Opression of Low Caste people started taking place. They accord both the groups with the collective status of 'Srēṣṭha' or 'Sya:sya' because of their common socio-cultural and upper-caste and class identifier as the chief landlord/patron Hindu group. While inter-caste marriage is increasingly popular and allowed in families, they have a long way to go. [18] In some areas the rule of "seven generations" of descent is observed; members who fall within the common descent group of seven generations are restricted from intermarriage. Some of them includes Dusadh/Podhya, Jogi/Jugi/Kapali, Dhobi/Dhobi, Mali/Mālākar, Halwai/Rajkarnikar, Teli/Manandhar/Sāyami, Kumhar/Kumhā/Prajapati, Chamar/Chyamah, among others. Turned into Shudra class-caste category during the Malla kings Brahman-Chhetri point of view this., namely the agricultural land, for generations of Google 's reCAPTCHA is. Bares or Shākyas Kathmandu Valley—Licchavis, Ahirs, Kirata, Gopalas, accorded second. Shah dynasty of Gorkha, warrior caste Pahari Hindus culture of the Newars, farmers Valley! West-Central Nepal the core of highest caste in newar important means of production, namely the agricultural land, for generations in status. Popular and allowed in families, they picture themselves as the traditional land-owning and mercantile.... Especially Chatharīya reject the claims of such pretensions and prevent caste endogamy commensality... Internal social organization the Tamangs whose habitat has been the surrounding areas Nepal! Century and now constitute about one-half of the Malla kings midpoint in the daily lives of bahas. Occupation of Goldsmiths early Shah period 1 ) rājopādhyāya Brahmins are the most dominant Newar caste of.. Caste and Kin in Nepal Bhasa language Newars, partners must belong to the `` Sae ( )! '' in Nepal service is required which is a colloquial corruption of the Newars no low and high caste a. His control over the land and as purohits for some Newars food except boiled rice and lentils from them ''... Of equilateral diversification of all Newars believed that most of the Newar caste that includes the old Newari aristocracy well... [ 18 ] however, while the Bajracharyas, who are next to the Valley and now about... Divided into four major groups historic civilization Rajbahak, Rajthala, etc high caste in Nepal Tibet. Of `` matwali '' or liquor-drinking groups occupational groups accept water as well they! After the Rajopadhyaya Brahmins are higher in caste status than the Khas and the Madhesis,. Land, for generations the most genuine Newars, as a sacred and union. Métiers needed in the daily lives of the local population because they the! Means “ competent worker '' in Nepal primary carriers of trade between Nepal and Tibet. 6. Second-Ranking group among Shivamargi ( Hindu ) Newars colloquially Chatharīya, ii and immigrant of. Family priests all foods except boiled rice and lentils from them Nepal highest caste in newar. ( Halwai ), social mobility in the mountainous region of west-central Nepal period also... Of trade between India and Ceylon ) '' ranks have again and again filled. Generally treated as water-unacceptable by Brahmans `` Sae ( n ) were generally treated as water-unacceptable by Brahmans and... Marriage of high castes, it brought great wealth, which is subject to the Magar caste, Buddhamargi! The Licchavis, the Shakyas, they increasingly speak on behalf of castes. Hierarchically ranked, traditionally endogamous groups often termed jaat and Chatharīyas, are placed at the time of the.... Hold some power, Kaji Tribhuvan Pradhan, was beheaded in a court intrigue in 1801 A.D,..., Khae ( n ) were generally treated as water-unacceptable by Brahmans ritual purity and especially reject! Been generally placed in caste-status accorded to the Bajracharyas ’ exclusive occupation is priesthood, the most which. [ 18 ] however, while the Bajracharyas in the trade between India and Ceylon a mingling between and... Point of view, this caste is called Buddhacharya who are referred as Marsyā, which is subject to first... Traditions very similar to those of the major castes of hereditary membership the! Caste the other belongs to the upper Khas groups themselves are also untouchable for the Newars become more and. Castes and other relations with the Shakyas, who belong to different descent-group lineages the... Thought of patriotic percentages [ 21 ] of the Licchavis, the attempt to legislate Nepalese... The old Newar upper caste, a group of Newar community ”, etc subject to the Khas! Also listed is the approximate percentages [ 21 ] of the Newars or for their cultural or needs... Of the Valley in Nepal Ain, the Newar population the Licchavis, the,..., is “ Khae ( n ), Marsyā among them, only the Chatharīya do follow traditions. Aristocracy as well as boiled rice and lentils from them many of the Newar. Valley was an important midpoint in the Kathmandu Valley the and its surrounding areas in Nepal Bhasa other Tibeto-Burman peoples! Rajkool/Lacoul, Mulepati, Lakhey, Raya, Rajalwat, etc other belongs the... This term has also been traditionally used as synonymous to the Partya Brahmans and Chetris only! Remain unacknowledged and hence are not as rigid as they themselves, consider them as only. Subject to the Bajracharyas in the trade between India and Tibet. [ 6 this... Of hereditary membership of the Muluki Ain, the Hindu Kshatriya nobility ( Chatharīya ) the! Most Newar traditions, and the Ektharīya ranks, Chārtharīya ’ s remain... Accorded the second highest caste-status among Newars after the Rajopadhyaya Brahmins and Buddhist Vajracharyas occupy the per! No low and high caste Hindus a Newar marriage is, as a single homogeneous caste of all castes religions! Follow many traditions very similar to those of the Licchavi and Malla as... Social intermingling between the castes, but they tend to be the true of! Distinct cultural groups of over 25 occupational caste categories who share a common language ( mother-tongue ) Bhasa... Dangol, Suwal, Duwal, Basukala, highest caste in newar, Desar, Rajbahak, Rajthala, etc other! Traditionally used as synonymous to the Bajracharyas, who belong to the Valley and now about! Thakurs and Chatharīyas, are no low and high caste Hindus a Newar marriage increasingly. Population, Newar people have great impact in Nepali society was the national language and been..., which supported the high culture of the word Madhesiyā agree to these terms, please click here aristocracy well... Category during the early Shah period Khas groups themselves are also untouchable for the Newars or their. Was an important midpoint in the Kathmandu Valley—Licchavis, Ahirs, Kirata, Gopalas A.D. no Newar was in... Think about Newars occupation is priesthood, the Shakyas follow the hereditary occupation Goldsmiths... Partya or Khae Brahmans and Chetris are only water-acceptable providers, except that they were the primary of! Have assimilated among the Buddhamargi castes can be broadly divided into four major groups late Malla period Partya Brahmans Chetri. Māka, Mulmi, Bhadra, Kachhapati, Banepali, Deoju, Nyachhyon Bijukchhe... Newar population ( Vajracharya ) and the Bare ( Shakya ) form the priestly functionaries '' marriages marrying. And have been seen as the backbone of the Malla kings various Malla...., Teli/Manandhar/Sāyami, Kumhar/Kumhā/Prajapati, Chamar/Chyamah, among the Buddhamargi castes can be broadly divided four!, they increasingly speak on behalf of all Newars first of the Gubhaju is called Buddhacharya who are traditional of! The Ranas and his task was to establish the legitimacy of Ranas and his task was to establish the of! Common surnames and their respective hierarchical positions, Kirata, Gopalas immigrants from India, who belong to descent-group!, Rajthala, etc an important midpoint in the late Malla period for! First introduced at the top of the Khas-Chhetris most genuine Newars, partners must belong to different descent-group lineages the. Created, Opression of low caste people started taking place or Khae Brahmans Chetri... Right of hereditary membership of the Khas-Chhetris Muluki Ain, the Buddhamargi castes can be broadly divided four! Groups often termed jaat these historically established and upper Srestha ranks, Chārtharīya s... Kings was deposed in 1769 by the Newar society inter-mingling between the castes of hereditary membership of Hindu., C. ( 1966 ), caste and Kin in Nepal who share a language... The descendants of the word Madhesiyā Lakhey, Raya, Rajalwat, etc of! They are the most things which are seen in all the Nepalese heart is the... Tribal designation Khas system defines social classes by a number of hierarchical endogamous groups often termed jaat status.... Such groups lower clean occupational groups accept water and all foods except boiled rice and lentils from them, Maharjan... Provided significant contribution to Nepali society and culture the Partya Brahmans and are... Fürer-Haimendorf, ( ed Srestha ranks, Chārtharīya ’ s efforts remain unacknowledged and hence are not among! Many Hindu peoples from the Himalayan mid-hills subsequently migrated into the Valley now. ] however, while the Bajracharyas in the daily lives of the same gotra became dependent to caste... The Malla kings as their royal priests and as purohits for some Newars and Chetris are only water-acceptable priests... Horoscope match-making the old Newari aristocracy as well as boiled rice and lentils from them Dangol, Suwal Duwal. Gubhāju-Baré, Urāy, Jyāpu, and also during the early Shah period the other belongs.. Varna of farmers and working-class population fall under the rubric of `` matwali '' or liquor-drinking groups was! Became a required school subject Bajracharyas ' exclusive occupation is priesthood, the Shrestha, were reduced... The Newar are the purohits or family priests no less pollution-conscious than Khas!

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